Thursday, December 18, 2008

Sedikit Ringkasan Cerita Melayu Klasik

Syair burung pungguk.

Syair Burung Pungguk tergolong dalam kesusasteraan Melayu Klasik atau dalam sastera rakyat yang berbentuk puisi (syair). Usianya sudah terlalu tua dan dikaitkan dengan suasana masyarakat tradisi. Syair ini mengisahkan satu percintaan yang tidak berjaya kerana perbezaan statu. Ia dapat dikaitkan dengan kiasan yang mengatakan “seperti pungguk rindukan bulan.” Yang bermaksud sebagai seorang pemuda yang merindukan gadis yang mempunyai kedudukan yang lebih tinggi daripadanya sehingga menempuh kegagalan.

Ceritanya adalah tentang burung pungguk yang rindukan bulan yang jauh lebih tinggi daripadanya. Cinta burung pungguk itu tidak ditolak dan tidak juga diterima tetapi pungguk hanya boleh memandang Puteri Bulan dari jauh. Puteri Bulan selalu pergi ke taman indah dan pungguk pergi ke taman itu atas bantuan burung cenderawasih (phoenix). Burung pungguk dan Puteri Bulan dapat berjumpa dan melepaskan rindu mereka. Perkara itu diketahui oleh garuda (condor). Garuda membunuh burung pungguk dan bangkainya dibuang di sungai. Dari bangkai burung pungguk itu lahir cendawan seperti haiwan hidup. Sejak itu pungguk merindukan bulan dan setiap malam terbang mendekati bulan.

Syair-syair seumpama ini amat banyak dan ia menjadi kiasan kepada kehidupan manusia yang menghadapi kegagalan dalam percintaan.

Sabai Nan Alaih.

Sabai Nan Alaih tergolong dalam satera rakyat dikalangan masyarakat Melayu berketurunan Minangkabau. Sebagai Sastera rakyat ia adalah asli dan tidak dipengaruhi oleh unsur asing. Antara intisari ceritanya ialah:
Sabai Nan Alaih atau Sabai Yang Halus merupakan nama gelaran kepada anak Raja Babanding, sabai Nan Alaih adalah seorang gadis cantik yang amat disukai oleh raja Nan Panjang, sorang tua bangka yang mempunyai isteri. Raja Nan Panjang melakukan untuk memiliki Sabai. Raja Nan Panjang telah mengajak Raja Babanding untuk menyabung ayam dan terjadinya pergaduhan antara mereka menyebabkan Raja Babanding mati ditembak sahabat raja Nan Panjang. Sabai berjumpa Raja Nan Panjang dan memakinya tetapi Raja Nan Panjang masih ingin memperistikannya. Sabai mengajak Raja Nan Panjang bertarung menggunakan senjata api. Sabai terluka akibat terkena tembakan Raja Nan Panjang tetapi Raja nan Panjang mati ditembak Sabai.

Sesuai dengan latar belakang masyarakat Minangkabau, cerita ini berkaitan dengan adat dan keadaan tempatan. Unsur pengajaran dapat dilihat melalui sikap Raja Nan Panjang yang tidak sedar diri.

Bustanus Salatin / Bustan As-Salatin

Bustanus Salatin merupakan karya sastera ketatanegaraan yang dihasilkan pada zaman kerajaan Islam di Acheh oleh Sheikh Nuruddin al-Raniri. Karya ini dikenali8 sebagai Taman raja-raja. Kitab ini dirujuk kepada beberapa buah kitab lain khususnya kepada bahasa Parsi.

Sesuai dengan namanya, kitab ini menjadi rujukan penting serta panduan kepada raja-raja dan pegawai kerajaan pada zaman Kerajaan Acheh. Dari segi isi, karya Nuruddin ini lebih bebas dan menyesuaikan dengan pandangannya serta keperluan masa. Kitab ini mengandungi 17 Fasal iaitu tentang kejadian langit dan bumi, kisah nabi-nabi dan raja-raja, sifat raja adil, raja bertapa dan wali yang saleh, raja yang zalim, orang yang murah hati dan berani, akal, ilmu firasat, perubatan dan sifat-sifat wanita. Dari segi agama, terdapat kisah Nur Muhammad, Luh Maffuz, Syurga, Sidratul Muntaha dan kisah nabi-nabi sehingga Nabi Muhammad. Cerita para wali dan orang saleh juga dilukiskan dalam kitab ini.

Dari segi kesusasteraan ditunjukkan betapa kemampuan Nuruddin menghasilkan sebuah karya yang berharga dan menjadi salah satu karya yang terpenting dalam sejarah kesusasteraan Melayu Klasik pada Zaman Acheh. Penggunaan Bahasa Melayu yang baik oleh Nuruddin juga menjadikan buku ini dapat dibaca oleh semua orang supaya menjadi nasihat dan panduan kepada mereka.


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